Abnormal uterine bleeding can be caused by a number of reasons. The vast majority of cases present with gynaecological disorders other than cancer but still need to be thoroughly assessed. Transvaginal ultrasound scanning is fully established as the first step of investigation.
Common problems found might include fibroids, polyps or abnormal changes within the lining of the uterine (womb) cavity. Increased thickening and / or irregular shedding of the cavity lining (i.e. endometrium) can be caused by fluctuation in ovarian (hormonal) activity thereby resulting in abnormal vaginal bleeding.
Modern transvaginal scanning techniques provide accurate diagnosis of causes of irregular bleeding. Advanced ultrasound imaging including the use of colour Doppler (blood flow) studies is successful in identifying those cases of abnormal ovarian activity as the underlying cause. It is also very effective in the detection of cancer of the uterus and cervix.
CDS are leaders in developing saline infusion sonohysterography (SIS), or “fluid ultrasound”, in order to assess the healthiness of the uterine cavity. Saline, i.e. sterile water is gently flushed into and gradually distends the cavity. High resolution 3D transvaginal scanning used as part of the SIS procedure provides very detailed imaging of associated abnormalities which might cause uterine bleeding.
Gynaecological disorders as described above might be associated with both abnormal uterine bleeding and pelvic pain.